Age-appropriate transition assessments are tools that help students identify their strengths, interests, skills, and/or knowledge needed to reach their goals for life after high school. Transition assessments can be accomplished through formal instruments or with an informal process based on data collected from a variety of sources and experiences.
- The Division on Career Development and Transition (DCDT) of the Council for Exceptional Children defines transition assessment as “… an ongoing process of collecting data on the individual’s needs, preferences, and interests as they relate to the demands of current and future working, educational, living, and personal and social environments. Assessment data serve as the common thread in the transition process and form the basis for defining goals and services to be included in the Individualized Education Program (IEP)” (p. 70-71).
- Base measurable postsecondary goals upon age-appropriate transition assessments.
- Determine if the transition assessments were age appropriate and were used to help the IEP team (student, teachers, evaluators, support staff) in developing the student’s measurable postsecondary goals.
- Review the measurable postsecondary goals. For each measurable postsecondary goal there should be evidence that at least one age-appropriate transition assessment was used that provided information on the student’s needs, taking into account his or her strengths, preferences, interests, and opportunities.
- Show supporting transition assessment information and summaries of any transition assessments in the present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, and/or in the student’s file.
- A copy of a completed age-appropriate transition assessment can be put in the student’s file. It must be dated, and it must clearly inform the student’s postsecondary goals.
Explanation: Transition Assessment Is a Process
Measurable postsecondary goals and transition services must be based on the results of age-appropriate transition assessments. These can be formal or informal assessments.
Formal and informal transition assessments compared
Formal transition assessments:
- To learn about a wide variety of skill levels in various areas (e.g., vocational, academic, social)
- Published tests: scores that compare students to others
- A starting point
- Types: learning style inventories, academic achievement tests, adaptive behavior scales, aptitude tests, interest inventories
Informal transition assessments:
- Observing the student in various academic and work experiences
- Talking with the student about likes and dislikes
- Setting up experiences to allow the student to try something that that may be of interest
- Often teacher-made, often do not result in a score
The assessments should be viewed as part of an ongoing process that will vary from student to student. There are different frameworks for the process.
Here is a tiered framework that a school, department, or program might use to organize the range of transition assessments it is likely to use to meet a variety of student needs.
The first tier includes tools that every high school student is exposed to in order to assist them in identifying career interests. These informal assessments include:
- interest inventories
- student dream sheet
- guidance department software tools for career exploration or interests
- career interest class projects
- employment experience
- example: Dream sheet (PDF, 1 page)
Data gathered from these sources is often a perfectly valid representation of a student’s interests, preferences, strengths, and weaknesses. However, students with educational disabilities and at-risk students may not be able to participate effectively in these types of assessments. Issues such as reading comprehension, experience, and ineffective decision-making skills can inhibit students from completing tools like interest inventories in a manner that is truly useful. These students may need a more targeted approach, the second tier.
Generally, second-tier assessment tools are administered to students who have been unable to isolate specific goals or interests through the usual channels. Second-tier assessments are more personalized and often include such things as:
- informational interviews
- career maturity rating scales
- work-related temperament scales
- ASVAB (aptitude test) for skills important in the military
- reflections and observations from job shadows or internships
- example: Environmental Job Assessment Measure (E-JAM) (PDF, 4 pages)
Combining information from the first and second tiers often provides enough information to create appropriate transition goals.
Third-tier assessments are used when still more specific information is needed to accurately identify the student’s needs, preferences, interests, and weaknesses. Examples are:
- functional behavioral analysis
- full vocational assessment
- life skills assessment
- results of person-centered planning
- example: Person-centered planning plans and process overviews
“Results of an informal transition interview completed with guidance counselor on October 1, 2014, indicated that John had a strong interest in working with computers.”
“The Transition Planning Inventory completed in advisory block on October 4, 2018, showed that Carol is in need of transition supports in the following areas in order to plan for her postsecondary goal.”
“The Career Matchmaker completed online on October 5, 2018 (copy of summary results in student’s file) showed a number of career choices compatible with Todd’s stated interests, which included…”
“A Functional Vocational Assessment completed on October 1, 2018, by … indicated areas of employment that Scott could access with appropriate accommodations, which included … (copy of vocational assessment in student’s file).”
- Age Appropriate Transition Assessment Toolkit, 4th edition (PDF, 64 pages, 2016) from NTACT, the National Technical Assistance Center on Transition.
- List of transition assessment websites from the Transition Coalition, University of Kansas. Click on Online Assessments and Resources at the bottom of their list to see the websites list.
- Reviews of transition assessments on the Transition Coalition website.
- Self-determination assessments from the Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment at the University of Oklahoma.
- Zarrow Center’s Transition Assessment and Goal Generator (TAGG). It costs $3/student and is becoming widely used in schools.
- Self-Determination Inventory System, a strong research-based snapshot of self-determination.
- Links to more transition assessments on our Transition Assessment reference page.
Is there evidence that the measurable postsecondary goals were based on age-appropriate transition assessments?
New Hampshire Indicator 13 requirements, tools and resources on the Department of Education website.
Essential Elements adapted from O’Leary (2010), Reviewer Reference Form for the Transition Requirements Checklist
Links checked 5/27/19
Content update 7/12/19
Interviews with Dr. Ed O’Leary: Age Appropriate Transition Assessments
Overview of Requirement
The Struggle to Meet the Requirement